Nature offers a powerful set of tools for addressing hazards like flooding and erosion. Nature-based solutions use natural systems, mimic natural processes, or work in tandem with traditional approaches to address these specific hazards. Communities across the country— along rivers or coasts, large or small, rural or urban— can incorporate nature-based solutions in local planning, zoning, regulations, and built projects to help reduce their exposure to flood and erosion impacts. Ninety-six percent of the total U. Smart nature-based solutions provide multiple benefits, giving communities high returns on their investments in flood risk reduction strategies. Healthier Environments Natural systems and nature-based solutions can reduce flood risks, while improving water quality and enhancing wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities. Ecological Benefits of Nature-Based Solutions Communities have choices in how they prepare for and respond to floods. Often overlooked is the role that nature and nature-based solutions can play alongside seawalls or dams and levees. For instance, we are safer when rivers have more room during floods and floodwaters can disperse and slow down rather than rise, rage and threaten communities.
Efficiency of Wind Energy
I understand it as matter that is a property of energy. Energy in a certain state and configuration that is matter. That matter is configured into all the things we see. Ahad karim October 9, at Stars, space, gases, galaxies, planets, black hole etc everything, produce energy from matter or other resources, some uses itself, and some let it for others use, the storage OF energy increases the body Of mass, when we burns that same matter it repays its energy which it stored.
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Map of the U. What follows is from: CleanTechnica, which you can find here. In some regions the water that is being relied upon is so-called fossil water — that is, water that was deposited many millennia ago and is mostly not being replenished for whatever reasons, such as lack of rainfall or impermeable geologic layers like heavy clay or calcrete laid on top. As these fossil water reserves are depleted, there is often nothing to replace them the one notable exception being the possibility of desalination in some regions , with the eventuality often being large populations, industrial infrastructure, and farmland that is untenable in the regions in question, to be followed by mass migrations out of such regions.
Particularly notable regions that are dependent upon fossil water are the American Great Plains the Ogallala Aquifer , northeastern Africa the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System , and central-southern Africa the Kalahari Desert fossil aquifers. The situation as regards to fossil water depletion in some regions is compounded by extensive development and paving over of aquifer-recharge areas in regions where rainfall is otherwise sufficient to replenish aquifers, and further so simply by unsustainable usage rates which draw down reserves.
As groundwater in regions with the possibility of recharge is pumped at unsustainable rates, though, what generally also occurs is ground subsidence. In plain language, the ground sinks due to the lack of support previously provided by groundwater that is no longer there. Subsidence in this context is notable because it leaves the ground and aquifer in question far less capable of storing water, due to compaction.
In other words, excess groundwater pumping permanently removes the ability of many aquifers to store water, leaving total aquifer capacity far lower than previously, and thus contributing to the drying out of the region in question. All of these above issues are themselves further compounded by saltwater intrusion in coastal regions due to the pumping of groundwater creating a vacuum-effect that draws nearby saltwater into the aquifers, and also due to ground subsidence, general sea level rise, and groundwater contamination in many regions, which is often the direct result of the industrial and agricultural activities that are themselves drawing the most water.
So what we have in the modern world, when we take a step back, is the convergence of growing problems of:
Renewable energy commercialization
Interactions of an object with another object can be explained and predicted using the concept of forces, which can cause a change in motion of one or both of the interacting objects. An individual force acts on one particular object and is described by its strength and direction. The strengths of forces can be measured and their values compared. What happens when a force is applied to an object depends not only on that force but also on all the other forces acting on that object.
A static object typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they sum to zero.
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Q: Is it true that all matter is simply condensed energy?
In a start-up sequence the rotor may be parked held stopped , and on release of the brakes would be accelerated by the wind until the required fixed speed was reached. At this point, a connection to the electricity grid would be made and then the grid through the generator would hold the speed constant. When the wind speed increased beyond the level at which rated power was generated, power would be regulated in either of the ways previously described, by stall or by pitching the blades.
Wind generator Subsequently, variable speed operation was introduced. This allowed the rotor and wind speed to be matched, and the rotor could thereby maintain the best flow geometry for maximum efficiency. The rotor could be connected to the grid at low speeds in very light winds and would speed up in proportion to wind speed.
The Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI or EROI) of any energy gathering system is a measure of that system’s efficiency. The concept was originally derived in ecology and has been transferred to analyse human industrial society.
Introduction[ edit ] The speed of gravitational waves in the general theory of relativity is equal to the speed of light in a vacuum, c. Formally, c is a conversion factor for changing the unit of time to the unit of space. Thus, the speed of “light” is also the speed of gravitational waves and any massless particle. Such particles include the gluon carrier of the strong force , the photons that make up light hence carrier of electromagnetic force , and the hypothetical gravitons which make up the associated field particles of gravity however a theory of the graviton requires a theory of quantum gravity.
Static fields[ edit ] The speed of physical changes in a gravitational or electromagnetic field should not be confused with “changes” in the behavior of static fields that are due to pure observer-effects. These changes in direction of a static field, because of relativistic considerations, are the same for an observer when a distant charge is moving, as when an observer instead decides to move with respect to a distant charge.
Thus, constant motion of an observer with regard to a static charge and its extended static field either a gravitational or electric field does not change the field. For static fields, such as the electrostatic field connected with electric charge, or the gravitational field connected to a massive object, the field extends to infinity, and does not propagate. Motion of an observer does not cause the direction of such a field to change, and by symmetrical considerations, changing the observer frame so that the charge appears to be moving at a constant rate, also does not cause the direction of its field to change, but requires that it continue to “point” in the direction of the charge, at all distances from the charge.
The consequence of this is that static fields either electric or gravitational always point directly to the actual position of the bodies that they are connected to, without any delay that is due to any “signal” traveling or propagating from the charge, over a distance to an observer. This remains true if the charged bodies and their observers are made to “move” or not , by simply changing reference frames. This fact sometimes causes confusion about the “speed” of such static fields, which sometimes appear to change infinitely quickly when the changes in the field are mere artifacts of the motion of the observer, or of observation.
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See my copyright notice for fair use practices. The Sun produces a lot of light every second and it has been doing that for billions of years. How does it or any other star produce so much energy for so long? This section will cover how stars produce their energy. Astronomers have known for a long time that the Sun produces a tremendous amount of energy.
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As of , China leads the world in the production and use of wind power, solar photovoltaic power and smart grid technologies, generating almost as much water, wind and solar energy as all of France and Germany’s power plants combined. China’s renewable energy sector is growing faster than its fossil fuels and nuclear power capacity. Since , production of solar cells in China has expanded fold. As Chinese renewable manufacturing has grown, the costs of renewable energy technologies have dropped.
Innovation has helped, but the main driver of reduced costs has been market expansion. A IEA report said:
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By , rapid economic growth has enabled India to catch up with China and the U. These three countries — the “G3” — now have by far the largest share of world GDP. By comparison, China’s average age is 46 and its working population has been declining. India has also managed to avoid many of the disruptive challenges experienced by China, since its market-based economy is already part of a liberal democracy, unlike the planned economy of its rival. India’s currency, the rupee, is now challenging the renminbi as the world’s strongest.
Due to its global influence and military capabilities, India has also gained a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. Later this decade, on 15th August , the nation will celebrate its th anniversary as an independent state. In particular, neighbouring Bangladesh requires ever more financial support and humanitarian aid, as flooding worsens. By the s, India’s growth has begun to stagnate, as the world faces a crisis unparalleled in history. Among the earlier problems which have now been solved are: Constructed from to , DEMO is now close to being perfected, having undergone several years of testing, expansion and upgrades.
Later this decade, it will produce a sustained output of 2 gigawatts GW , making fusion commercially available for the first time.
Q: Is it true that all matter is simply condensed energy?
The concept was originally derived in ecology and has been transferred to analyse human industrial society. This marks the edge of The Net Energy Cliff and it is clear that new Green technologies designed to save humanity from CO2 may kill humanity through energy starvation instead. Fossil fuels remain comfortably away from the cliff edge but march closer to it for every year that passes. The Cheetah symbolises an energy system living on the edge.
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Wind energy is now the second fastest-growing source of electricity in the world, with a global installed capacity of , megawatts MW at the end of There are over 75, MW of wind capacity operational in the U. You can see U. Why is wind energy generation such a popular choice? What does the wind industry offer? There are many different sizes of wind turbines to accommodate many different needs From small distributed systems that can help power homes, businesses, or ranches to giant multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines.
Wind energy is now one of the most cost-effective sources of new electricity generation Utilities can lock in wind energy prices for 20 to 30 years because the fuel is free. In , wind energy provided 4. Wind energy projects are good for the U. More than American manufacturing plants build wind components, including towers and blades. Since , more than wind energy manufacturing facilities have come online, been announced, or expanded.